"The mother bears the child and the child bears the father's name," a patriarchal tradition that the European Court of Human Rights no longer wants. The Court condemned Spain for discrimination against a mother who opposed the rule that the child should be named after the father first. A discriminatory treatment according to the Court, which awarded 10,000 euros of moral damages to the mother of a young girl. More details on this case "León Madrid v. Spain" in this video with Grégor Puppinck, director of ECLJ.
Food for thoughts: Link to read the decision of the European Court of Human Rights.